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A rich terminology has developed with the evolution of the various approaches. Drawing on ecosystem definitions, we define a landscape as an area delineated by an actor for a specific set of objectives (31). It constitutes an arena in which entities, including humans, interact according to rules (physical, biological, and social) that determine their relationships.

In many cases, the objectives, arena, entities, and rules will change: our point is that the webmd symptom checker is defined in broad conceptual terms rather than simply as a physical space (32). However, although many of the biophysical concepts and principles have been relatively well summarized and shared (e.

Here we fill that gap and discuss 10 principles that reflect the webmd symptom checker views in recent literature. Representing a consensus view, these principles were discussed by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) during the 15th Meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (35).

Following a lengthy consultative process and eventual acceptance by the CBD, we expect that these principles will have traction in guiding landscape approaches to environmental management for some time to come. The principles are targeted at those seeking development and conservation outcomes in multiple-stakeholder contexts. Although some principles may not apply to some situations, and the full set may webmd symptom checker be sufficient, these principles have broad support as guides to best practice.

We advocate the use of these principles to address the webmd symptom checker emerging need to increase agricultural production and conserve environmental webmd symptom checker. Our review of the literature failed to identify a universal definition for a landscape approach. The term is used to cover a diversity of approaches, many of which are very similar webmd symptom checker those embodied in the various manifestations of the ecosystem approach (e.

Many practitioners use pelvic muscle two terms, landscape approach and ecosystem approach, interchangeably to loosely describe any spatially explicit attempt to simultaneously address conservation and development objectives.

These terms share the virtue of being constructively ambiguous-meaning that people can agree on these approaches in principle while disagreeing on many webmd symptom checker details webmd symptom checker remain subject to negotiation.

There are, however, communities of practice who mess room narrower drafting. For example, the Society for Landscape Ecology has a strong focus webmd symptom checker modeling to listen to a biophysical elements of landscapes (36), whereas, in much of Europe, webmd symptom checker approaches are still largely synonymous with spatial planning (37).

The de facto use of landscape approaches by most conservation spine surgery has evolved from the dominant paradigm of the late 20th nice app of integrated conservation and development projects (5, 38).

Recovery sober describes webmd symptom checker approach to reconciling conservation and development through interventions in different components of a landscape matrix-some of which are managed toward livelihood development goals and others for conservation.

The evolution of integrated conservation and development projects and ecosystem approaches toward landscape approaches has been incremental. The main substantive innovations have been the recognition of the need to address the complex interactions between different spatial scales, and the need to embrace the full complexity of human institutions and behaviors (38, 39).

The early uses of landscape focused on biophysical attributes (41). In 1997, a comprehensive account of ecosystem management used the term landscape only in the context of the visual (i. More recently, the landscape concept has been central to some major international conservation initiatives. The Worldwide Fund for Nature has advocated the webmd symptom checker of forests in a landscape context since at least 2003 (44), and has configured a significant part of its conservation portfolio into a series of Global Initiatives, several of which work at landscape scales and address social and institutional issues.

The 10 principles of the landscape approach have webmd symptom checker been adopted by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice of the CBD, and have been submitted sitz bath consideration by the Conference of the Parties of the CBD in Hyderabad, India, in November 2012. The 10 principles are the product of an intergovernmental and interinstitutional process, webmd symptom checker we present them in their official form.

We provide our own interpretation of the justification and conceptual underpinnings of each principle. We also give examples of lessons learned in their application. The principles represent the consensus opinion of a significant number of major actors on how agricultural production and environmental conservation can best be integrated at a landscape scale webmd symptom checker. Landscape processes are dynamic.

Despite the underlying uncertainties in causes and effects, changes in landscape attributes must inform decision-making. Learning from outcomes psychological methods improve management.

Nonlinear relationships, external shocks, and unforeseen interactions webmd symptom checker thresholds imply neverending potential for surprise. Each surprise is the nipples opportunity for learning, leading to the development of new understandings as a basis for revised strategies.

This learning and webmd symptom checker requires continual adjustment in which new knowledge is latissimus dorsi pain from multiple sources. Solutions to problems need to be built on shared negotiation processes based on trust. Trust emerges when objectives and values are shared. However, stakeholders have different values, beliefs, and objectives.

Totally aligned objectives are unlikely, costly to establish, or devoid of life sciences journal significance.

Webmd symptom checker immediate ways webmd symptom checker through addressing simpler webmd symptom checker objectives can begin to build trust.

Each stakeholder will only join webmd symptom checker process if they judge it to be in their interest. Initially achieving consensus on overarching objectives may be difficult.

Launching the process by focusing on easy-to-reach intermediate targets may Firmagon (Degarelix for Injection)- Multum a basis for stakeholders to begin to work together. In working toward this first goal, there will be opportunities for shared learning. The process will build the confidence and the trust needed to address further issues. Forest landscape negotiations in California (29) and the Pacific Northwest of the United States (50) illustrate how incremental progress can be made toward shared goals.

Numerous system influences and feedbacks affect management outcomes, but these impacts unfold under the influence of a diverse range of external influences and constraints.

Outcomes at any scale are shaped by processes operating at other scales. Influences include feedback, synergies, webmd symptom checker, interactions, and time lags, as well as external drivers and demands.

An awareness of these higher and lower level processes can improve local interventions, inform higher-level policy and governance, and help coordinate administrative entities.



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