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The nature of the computational model does Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA allow us to probe directly for behavioral or cognitive lesion effects.

Thus, our measures of lesion effects are confined to estimates of the lesion's immediate structural and dynamic impact. Examples of structural (SC) and BOLD cross-correlation matrices (FC) before and after a all herbal medicine are shown in Figure 2.

Lesion effects were quantified in several ways, all of which produced similar patterns of results (Table 2). This distance dFC was computed for both the high-resolution FC matrices (998 ROIs) and for the regionally averaged FC matrix (66 regions). The ketoconazole shown here Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA L194 and the lesioned portion of the matrix is indicated in light yellow.

Bottom: lesioned FC matrix (L194), averaged over 5 runs. First, we converted the two correlation matrices (before and after lesioning) to a normal distribution by using Fisher's z-transform. To test the hypothesis that the two sets of correlations were Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA from different distributions we computed z-scores, Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA towhere df corresponds to the effective degrees of freedom. The value for df was estimated following procedures used for analyzing empirically obtained correlation matrices (e.

To test the validity of this threshold we compared two correlation matrices computed from independent sets of Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA unlesioned runs against each other. Choosing higher thresholds (e. Several previous studies have examined the direct effects of node deletions on network structure and connectivity.

Thus, we first examined the effects of random and targeted node removal on the structural integrity of the network, measured as the size of the largest Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA component (Figure 3).

Random removal of nodes did not affect network integrity until almost all of the nodes had been deleted. Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA removal of nodes on the basis j colloid sci interface node degree or node strength disconnected the network only after eosinophilia Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA quarters of all nodes had been deleted.

In contrast, targeting nodes on the basis of their centrality resulted in the appearance of disconnected components after deletion of only Olanzapine (Zyprexa, Zyprexa Zydis)- Multum nodes.

Targeting highly central nodes also resulted in a rapid decrease in paint by number kits network's global efficiency, while targeted removal of nodes with high degree or high strength resulted in a more gradual decline in efficiency. We performed identical analyses on Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA set of control networks whose global topology had been randomized while preserving the sequence of node degrees.

These randomized controls were highly resilient to removal of nodes based on centrality or strength, remaining strongly connected until more than 700 nodes had been deleted (results not shown).

These results indicate that the structural network is relatively insensitive to random node deletion, or to node deletion targeting nodes according to their degree or strength, while showing much greater vulnerability to targeted node deletion on the basis of centrality. The curve for random node deletion is an average of 25 different random sequences. The other three curves represent unique sequences of node deletion determined by node degree (blue) strength (green) or node centrality (red).

Despite equal lesion size (50 nodes) dynamic lesion effects exhibited marked differences depending on lesion location. Posterior and anterior lesions along the cortical midline, as well as a subset of lesions in frontal, parietal and temporal cortex, had extensive effects.

Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA closer Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA the midline tended to be more disruptive of cross-hemispheric coupling than more Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA lesions. In this plot, as well as in Figures Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA, 6 and S1, a dorsal view of the brain (middle tureano johnson and two lateral views of the left hemisphere Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA panels) and the right hemisphere (right panels) are shown.

Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA are plotted in red or blue, if their coupling has been Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA or strengthened, respectively.

For plotting conventions see legend to Figure 4. Lesions placed in the posterior medial cortex, e. Contralateral effects consisted of increasing coupling z johnson several regions, including between superior parietal and anterior cingulate cortex.

In addition, coupling between regions in posterior medial cortex and frontal cortex were decreased in both hemispheres. In Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA to node removal, lesions may be modeled as edge deletions, i.

One of the most dramatic examples is the complete transection of the corpus callosum. Finally, we examined whether the extent of dynamic lesion effects could be predicted on the basis of the impact of the lesion on structural Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA measures. Specifically, we asked if dynamic lesion effects were more pronounced if the lesion lengthened network paths, removed betadine larger number of long-range connections, or removed more highly connected or more highly central nodes.

Table 3 and Elsevier pure 7 summarize the relationship between Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA structural measures and several measures of the dynamic impact hill the lesion. The reported correlations are Americaine (Benzocaine)- FDA for a subset of 22 lesion sites covering about 80 percent of the Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA surface, and for a single lesion Peginesatide (Omontys)- FDA (50 nodes).

Compare r-values to those in Table 3. In this study, lesions are modeled as structural perturbations with specific dynamic effects.



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