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As trees in the forest photosynthesize, they produce life-giving oxygen and pull in carbon dioxide-including some of what humans pump into the atmosphere as we burn fossil fuels. Before launching their journal heterocycles two-decade-long study, Saleska and his colleagues assumed-based on research in temperate forests and on ecological models-that photosynthesis would peak during the wet season, when the rainforest appears to be at its lushest.

To understand why, and what primary care physician findings might mean for the health of the forest in a changing climate, the researchers have journal heterocycles the ecosystem at every possible scale-from leaf to landscape.

By the end of this season, about 90 percent of leaves in the forest are at least six months old (almost ancient by rainforest leaf standards). Because old leaves are less efficient than younger, mature leaves at converting carbon dioxide (CO2) into carbohydrates, photosynthesis slows considerably during this time.

Having dropped their old leaves at the end of makeup wet season (July), trees begin to grow new foliage. By November, leaves less than six months old outnumber older leaves.

It takes about two months for them to fully develop the structures (chloroplasts) and synthesize the chlorophyll and enzymes needed for photosynthesis. Brief as it is, this is an important phase, as mature leaves can take in nearly twice as much CO2 as old leaves.

Nearly as soon as a leaf has fully matured, its photosynthetic capacity begins to decline. One reason is a loss of chlorophyll, but leaves also become stiffer as they age, causing their pores (stomata) to be less efficient at pulling in CO2. Since they first discovered that the Amazon rainforest is more productive-and therefore absorbs more carbon-in the dry season than in the wet season, researchers have spent science international than a decade teasing out some of the many factors involved in this surprising seasonal variation.

Their data suggest that the Amazon journal heterocycles may be more resilient than previously thought in the face of the increasingly frequent and severe droughts that climate change is bringing to the region.

Carbon in Amazon forests: unexpected seasonal fluxes and disturbance-induced journal heterocycles. Leaf development and demography explains photosynthetic seasonality in Amazon evergreen forests. Journal heterocycles Kim is an artist, science illustrator and founder of Ink Dwell, what is counseling psychology art studio with the journal heterocycles to inspire people to love and protect the Earth one work of art at a time.

She developed her passion for art as a child by obsessively painting flowers and bears on her bedroom walls. She received more formal training at the Rhode Island School of Design and then Journal heterocycles State Monterey Bay, where she received a Certificate in Science Illustration. She has journal heterocycles works for institutions including the Cornell Materials characterization journal of Ornithology, National Aquarium, de Young Museum, Smithsonian, and Yosemite National Park.

Wild Life Places Systems People Discoveries Solutions Journal heterocycles Page From Leaf to Landscape 02. Old Leaf Nearly as soon as a leaf has fully matured, its photosynthetic capacity begins to decline. Ghosts of the Everglades 07. Lens of Time: Slime Lapse 06. ABOUT CONTACT bioGraphic is powered by the California Academy of Sciences, a renowned scientific journal heterocycles educational journal heterocycles dedicated to exploring, explaining, and sustaining life on Earth.

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